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洁净厂房设计施工的生物净化两类措施

发布人:
发布日期:2017-04-14 09:11:58
长期以来,我们依赖消毒灭菌,来消除受控空间中微生物的危害。我国在上世纪70年代后期,已经认识到化学消毒灭菌的局限性,开始借助工业洁净技术这一物理手段,来控制微生物污染,并取得了一定效果。但是,其思路依然是将已经发生的病菌除掉。这是因为,过去我们主要涉及工业洁净室,是要控制危害工艺的微粒。对于那些没有生命的微粒,我们从来不会顾及微粒沉积在系统或室内(或称为一次污染),也没有考虑积尘积水会诱发微生物二次污染。
 
For a long time, we have to rely on disinfection and sterilization, to eliminate the hazards of microorganisms in controlled space. In the late 70's of last century, China has realized the limitation of chemical disinfection and sterilization, and has begun to control the microbial contamination and achieved some results with the physical means of industrial cleaning technology. However, the idea is still to remove the bacteria have occurred. This is because, in the past, we are mainly involved in the industrial clean room, is to control the hazards of the process of particles. For those who have no life, we will never take into account the particles deposited in the system or indoor (or is called a pollution), and did not take into account the stagnant water will cause microbial two pollution.
 
表面看来,生物洁净技术控制手段,与工业洁净似乎差不多。其实,微生物是活的粒子,种类很多,生存条件各不相同,所以控制手段也不同。微生物在不利环境中,会长期潜伏,一旦条件合适,就会大量繁殖。
 
On the surface, the biological clean technology control means, and industrial clean it seems almost. In fact, microorganisms are living particles, a lot of species, living conditions are not the same, so control means is also different. Microorganisms in the adverse environment, the long-term potential, once the conditions are appropriate, it will be a large number of breeding.
 
另外,生物洁净室湿负荷常常比较高,系统去湿量大,或者说,整个 http://www.jnjkjh.com/ 系统中只要存在一次污染,就可导致长期持续的潜在风险。如果我们控制措施不力,就有可能使得这种潜在风险造成传染,引起交叉感染,甚至爆发大规模微生物的污染。
 
In addition, the bio clean room wet load is often relatively high, the system to wet large, or, the entire clean plant design and construction system as long as there is a pollution, can lead to long-term sustainable potential risks. If we control measures, it is possible to make this potential risk of infection, causing cross infection, and even the outbreak of large-scale microbial contamination.
 
1.单纯净化措施,已无法有效地控制生物污染
 
1 simple purification measures, has been unable to effectively control the biological pollution
 
目前,生物净化所用的空调机,大多采用普通空调机组增加空气过滤器等措施,来控制生物污染。大量事实表明,单纯的净化除菌,无法有效地控制生物污染。这是因为在普通空调系统中,确实存在微生物定植、繁殖与传播关系链,如空调箱和管道内表面、冷却去湿盘管、冷凝水盘与排水水封、加湿器及其存水容器、空气过滤器表面等地方,均有可能促成致病菌的不断定植和繁殖,而引发生物污染的因子,是不存在最小控制粒径的,单靠过滤器难以防范。
 
At present, the air conditioner used in biological purification, mostly used in ordinary air conditioning units to increase air filters and other measures to control biological pollution. A large number of facts show that, simple purification sterilization, unable to effectively control the biological pollution. This is because in the conventional air conditioning system, the existence of microbial colonization, breeding and propagation of the chain, such as air conditioning box and pipe inner surface, cooling to wet coil, a condensed water pan and drain water seal, humidifier and water container, the surface of air filters and other places may have contributed to the pathogens continue planting and breeding, and lead to biological pollution factor, there is no minimum size control, filter alone is difficult to prevent.
 
平时我们所说的生物粒子,大多是依附在粒子上形成的不小于1μm的生物粒子,这就是经常说的当量粒径的概念。一般来说,系统采用亚高效过滤器完全可以了。
 
Usually we say that the biological particles, are mostly dependent on the particle formation of not less than 1 m of biological particles, which is often said that the concept of equivalent particle size. Generally speaking, the system uses the sub - efficient filter to complete the.
 
如果微生物在系统中(尤其在过滤器表面)直接繁殖,所产生的生物污染因子直接进入送风气流,不一定会形成生物粒子。这些直接在过滤器表面繁殖的微生物及其代谢物,大多粒径很小,很有可能穿透过滤器,被空调送风源源不断地送到每个房间,形成空调系统的二次污染。
 
If the microorganism in the system (especially in the filter surface) directly, the generated by the biological pollution factor directly into the air flow, not necessarily the formation of biological particles. These microorganisms and their metabolites, which are directly propagated in the filter surface, are very small and very likely to penetrate the filter, which is sent to each room by air conditioning system.
 
这就是为什么近年来,国内外相关标准都提高了末端空气过滤器效率的缘由。但事实表明,这样仍然无法确保除掉所有二次污染发生的微生物及其代谢物。可见,关键的措施在于不让微生物滋生,而不应随它发生,再采用措施消除它。从这一理念出发,才能发展合适的综合控制措施。
 
This is why in recent years, domestic and international standards have improved the efficiency of the end air filter. But the fact is that it is still not sure that all two of the microorganisms and their metabolites are removed. Visible, the key is to do not allow microbial growth, and should not happen, and then the use of measures to eliminate it. From this idea, to develop a suitable comprehensive control measures.
     2.综合控制措施,是全新的微生物污染控制概念
 
2 comprehensive control measures, is a new concept of microbial pollution control
 
如今,生物洁净技术,已从传统空调提高热湿交换效率的设计思路,转换到有效净化除菌上来。我们已经认识到,传统空调系统,存在着产生微生物污染的隐患,那么,我们控制污染的思路,就存在做减法还是做加法的区别——所谓减法,就是更换易污染的空气处理装置,直接消除空调系统的污染隐患;而加法,则是增加“净化”措施,去消除空调系统所产生的污染。
 
Today, bio clean technology, has been from the traditional air-conditioning improve heat and moisture exchange efficiency of design ideas, the conversion to effective purifying and degerming. We have realized that the traditional air conditioning system, there are hidden dangers of microbial contamination, then, we control pollution ideas, there is a difference between doing subtraction or addition, the so-called subtraction, is to replace the easy pollution of air conditioning system, direct elimination of air conditioning system pollution hazards; and the addition, is to increase the pollution of air conditioning system.
 
目前,我们已采用了一系列静态和动态控制措施,用“减法”开发了生物净化专用空调机组。如不使用淋水式空气处理装置和水加湿器等,重视空调系统的干燥和易清洁。
 
At present, we have adopted a series of static and dynamic control measures, using the "subtraction" to develop a dedicated air conditioning unit. If you do not use spray type air humidifier and water treatment device, pay attention to dry and Yi Qingjie air conditioning system.
 
相对来说,消除系统积尘较为简单。有效防潮防湿思路,应是湿度控制优先的观念。优先考虑将系统中的水分尽快排除,避免水分的产生、飞扬、积存,或局部形成高湿度。
 
Relatively speaking, the elimination of the system is relatively simple. The idea of effective moisture and moisture prevention should be the priority of humidity control. Give priority to the system in the water as soon as possible, to avoid water production, flying, stockpile, or local formation of high humidity.
 
这些控制要求与措施,已被GB50333-2002《医院洁净手术部建筑技术规范》和GB/T19569-2004《洁净手术室用空气调节机组》所采用。但是,生物危害是多因子多途径、随时随地发生的,每项技术都有适用范围或特定场所,不可能覆盖所有领域,例如,新风过滤器,难免会受潮,回风中的微生物,也有可能进入空调机。要控制微生物污染,既要有针对性措施,又要强调采用综合技术。
 
These control requirements and measures, has been GB503332002 the hospital clean operating Ministry of construction technical specification "and GB/T195692004 the clean operating room air conditioning unit" the. However, biological hazards is multi factor in many ways, anytime, anywhere, each have scope or specific places and can not cover all areas, for example, air filter, there will inevitably be affected with damp, return air microorganisms, may enter the air conditioner. To control microbial contamination, it is not only for the targeted measures, but also to emphasize the use of integrated technology.
 
因此,还要求生物净化专用空调机,在结构上便于消毒、清洗,且停机后便于保持干燥、无积水。在要求更高的场所,也可在“减法”的基础上,做“加法”。如采用抗菌过滤器、对盘管与凝水盘喷涂抗菌剂,来消除表面微生物滋生问题等。
 
Therefore, it is also required to purify the special air conditioner, which is convenient to be cleaned and cleaned in the structure, and it is convenient to keep dry and no water. In the higher place, also can be in the "subtraction" on the basis of doing the addition". Such as the use of antibacterial filter, the coil and the condensate water spray antibacterial agent, to eliminate the surface of microbial breeding problems, etc..
 
但是,“加法”应选择安全、合理、恰当措施。不幸的是,仍有许多厂家一味做“加法”。每一项措施,总有其局限性与负面影响,多重抗菌措施组合在一起,未必更安全,有时反而画蛇添足,还会增加造价与运行费用。
 
However, the "addition" should choose safe, reasonable and appropriate measures. Unfortunately, there are still many manufacturers to do the addition". Each measure has its limitations and negative effects, multiple antibacterial measures together, are not necessarily safer, sometimes but superfluous. It will also increase the cost and operation cost.
 
可见,应采用综合措施,来实施全新的微生物污染控制概念,应在“减法”的基础上,做些“加法”,将防菌与抗菌措施结合起来;将除菌的物理性能与杀菌的化学性能,有机地结合在一起;将宏观的空气净化技术,与微观的材料合成技术结合起来。这样,生物净化技术才能提供一种切实可行的保障体系。
 
Visible, should be adopted comprehensive measures, to implement new microbial contamination control concept, should be on the basis of "subtraction", "the addition, the bacteria and antibacterial measures combined, will sterilization on the physical properties and germicidal properties and organically combined together; the macro air purification technology, and micro technology for synthesis of materials together. Thus, biological purification technology can provide a practical guarantee system.
 
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